Vaccines alter risk of many autoimmune diseases
A number of rheumatoid (Lupus&R.A.)and non rheumatoid autoimmune diseases have been reported to occur following immunization. Multiple sclerosis has been reported to become clinical apparent or be exacerbated following immunization with a variety of vaccines (MS). Myasthenia gravis has been reported to occur and to be exacerbated following immunization with a variety of vaccines (Biron et al., 1988); (Ryniewicz & Badurska, 1977). Guillain-Barre syndrome, an autoimmune demyelinating disease, has been reported to occur following immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B and tetanus vaccines (Herroelen et al., 1991); (Newton & Janati, 1987). Killed vaccines including the streptococcal vaccine have also been reported to induce and exacerbate autoimmune diseases to blood cells including platelets (Kelton, 1981) and red blood cells (Zupanska et al., 1976).
Vaccine induction and exacerbation of autoimmunity in rodents
Studies show that human vaccines can induce autoimmunity when administered with autoantigens, exacerbate autoimmunity when given alone, and can even induce autoimmunity when administered without autoantigens. Freund's complete adjuvant, which contains BCG vaccine (Paterson, 1973) or a similar mycobacterium in mineral oil, when mixed with autoantigens is one of the strongest inducers of autoimmunity known (Rose et al., 1971). BCG vaccine is also been shown to exacerbate autoimmunity in lupus prone mice (Engleman et al., 1981). The pertussis vaccine has been shown to be an adjuvant for a number of autoimmune diseases. The administration of the pertussis vaccine with thyroid extract in Freund's incomplete adjuvant caused the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in rats (Twarog et al., 1970). The addition of pertussis vaccine also exacerbated autoimmune thyroiditis induced in rats by the administration of thyroid extract in Freund's complete adjuvant (Twarog & Rose, 1969). Autoimmune nephritis (Rudofsky, 1976) and sialoadenitis (Whaley & Macsween, 1974) have been induced in guinea pigs with pertussis vaccine and tissue homogenates. Streptococcal vaccines have been shown to induce a number of autoimmune diseases in rabbits (Onica et al., 1977); (Colling et al., 1983); (Tonooka et al., 1978).
The pertussis as well as other vaccines have been shown to induce demyelinating autoimmune diseases in rodents. Administration of pertussis vaccine with homogenized spinal cord caused the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis, EAE, in rats (Levine & Wenk, 1967). Administration of the pertussis vaccine in the absence of autoantigens has been shown to exacerbate smoldering EAE in rats (Levine & Wenk, 1966). Administration of the swine flu vaccine in combination with an neural extract has lead to the development of autoimmune neuritis (Hjorth et al., 1984). Live attenuated vaccines including measles, rubella, BCG and distemper vaccines have been shown to exacerbate EAE induced by the administration of homologous spinal cord in Freund's complete adjuvant in guinea pigs (Caspary, 1977).